Water Consumption Rate for various purposes
To determine the water consumption rate, first, you need to find the quantity of water required for municipal uses. The equation to find quantity of water is given below.
The quantity of water required for municipal uses for which the water supply scheme has to be designed requires the following data:
1. Water consumption rate (Per Capita Demand in litres per day per head)
2. Population to be served.
Quantity= Per capita demand x Population
Water Consumption Rate
It is very difficult to precisely assess the quantity of water demanded by the public, since there
are many variable factors affecting water consumption. The various types of water demands,
which a city may have, may be broken into following classes:
Water Consumption for various purposes are given below
Fire Fighting Demand by various formulas
The per capita fire demand is very less on an average basis but the rate at which the water is required is very large. The rate of fire demand is sometimes treated as a function of population and is worked out from following empirical formulae:
Factors affecting per capita demand
The water consumption rate is mainly affected by per capita demand. The below points shows the factors affecting per capita demand.
a. Size of the city: Per capita demand for big cities is generally large as compared to that for smaller towns as big cities have sewered houses.
b. Presence of industries.
c. Climatic conditions.
d. Habits of people and their economic status.
e. Quality of water: If water is aesthetically & medically safe, the consumption will increase as people will not resort to private wells, etc.
f. Pressure in the distribution system.
g. Efficiency of water works administration: Leaks in water mains and services; and unauthorised use of water can be kept to a minimum by surveys.
h. Cost of water.
i. Policy of metering and charging method: Water tax is charged in two different ways: on the basis of meter reading and on the basis of certain fixed monthly rate.