Why do we provide top and bottom extra bars in a beam?

Generally,in beams we provide top reinforcement in compression zone and bottom reinforcement in tension zone.

Both top and bottom reinforcements provide resistance to moments since beams are primarily flexural members.

Suppose,if the top and bottom reinforcements are not sufficient to resist the moments of the beam in that case we have to provide additional extra extra bars in top and bottom of the beam according to the requirement.

Please refer the below image.

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