Water Quality Testing and Parameters Analysis-Physical and Chemical

Are you looking for how to do water Quality Testing and what are the involved Parameters?There are several important water quality parameters you should know while you testing your water quality testing.The quality of water can be expressed detailed into physical quality of water and chemical quality of water.

water quality parameters

1.Physical water quality testing parameters

Turbidity

The first water quality testing which I am going to write for you is turbidity.Turbidity is the cloudiness of water caused by a large number of suspended solids is generally invisible.From this water quality testing, you can determine the clarity of the water.

Clay, silt and bacteria are the main causes of turbidity in water.In conventional turbidity meter, the light intensity is measured in the direction parallel to the applied light.Standard turbidity unit for the conventional meter is silica scale.

1 unit of silica scale is equal to turbidity produced by 1 mg finely divided silica particular in 1 litre.

In Modern turbidity meter, the light intensity is measured in the direction perpendicular to the applied light.Nephelometer is an example of modern turbidity meter.

The standard unit of modern turbidity meter like nephelometer is NTU or FTU.NTU is THE turbidity produced by 1mg of formazine in 1-litre turbid free water.

Read Here: How to determine the turbidity of the water.

Causes of Colour in water

          Actually, the most impressive thing is the color of the water is light blue.The density of blue color increase with increase your sight distance from the water.

That’s why when you look seawater from its shore, its look pure white color.But when you look from a satellite, the water in the sea becomes a dark blue color like below image.

Causes of color in water

Do you know what are the causes of color in the water? The main reason for the causes of color in water is due to dissolved matter.

The dissolved matters are accumulated during its path from hills or forest to sea.Along its way, these water need to pass various types of soils and forest and other regions.Eventually, it causes the accumulation of leaves and other salts in water.

This accumulated material eventually decays and contributes to causes of color in the water.Dissolved matter does not produce harmful consequences but it produces color to the water.The determination of colour testing can be done with eyes.

Temperature

In our municipality, the temperature of the municipal water should be within the range of 10 to 25-degree Celcius.We can measure temperature directly with the help of a thermometer.

Specific conductivity

It is the indication of the total dissolved solids.The dissolved salt content can be determined by this method.

Read Here: How to determine the specific conductivity of water?

2.Chemical water quality parameters and its testing

PH of water

Ph of the water is the must water quality parameter that you should check in your lab.It indicates the hydrogen ion concentration in water.It is one of the important water quality parameters.

  • if pH is > 7 water is said to be basic or alkaline
  • If pH is = 7 water is said to be neutral
  • If pH is < 7 water is said to be acidic.

Read Here: How to determine the Ph of water sample?

Hardness

It is the characteristic which prevents the soap.Hardness is due to carbonate and non-carbonate.The temporary hardness is caused by carbonates such as HCO3 and CO2 of Ca and Mg ions.It can be removed by addition of lime.

The permanent hardness is caused by the SO4, CL and NO3 ions of Ca and Mg.The permanent hardness can be removed by zeolite process.

Read Here: How to determine the hardness of water?

  • Hardness less than 75 ppm is called soft water
  • Hardness less than 200 ppm is called hard water
  • Hardness is generally measured in EDTA test.

Chloride Content

I suppose that, If you are town person.Sometimes you regularly explore the taste of chlorides.The chlorides are present in the form of NaCl.The permissible limit of chloride content is 250mg/l.

Read Here: How to determine the chloride content in water?

Nitrogen content

The excess of nitrogen content causes blue baby disease.The nitrogen content indicates the presence of organic matter.

Dissolved Gases

  • H2S  gives bad taste and odour 
  • CO2 indicates biological activity and causes corrosion in pipelines.

Read Here: How to determine the dissolved oxygen content in water?

 

Hope you enjoyed the water quality parameters and testing.

 

 

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