Water Supply System
The design of water supply system acts a vital role in the future the development of the city.So in order to meet future requirements,the design and construction of water supply system acts an un avoided element in the area. The water supply system consist of source of water, treatment plant, storage reservoir and distribution system.
1.Source of water
The first element in the design of water supply system is source.The water can take from well,rivers,lakes,collected rain water etc..
The second element is treatment plant.Before transfer the water to the distribution system or storage reservoir,the water has to treated well to remove the organic and inorganic materials.
2.Water Treatment Plant
The processes involved in the treatment unit are
Screening is the first process in water treatment plants.It removes materials like rags, paper, plastics, and metals to prevent damage and clogging.
Aeration dissolve the oxygen in water,Because the collected water has less amount of oxygen.The collected water has more H2S,ammonia etc..
Sedimentation involves plain sedimentation and sedimentation with coagulation.Sedimentation is the process of settling of undesirable small particulate suspended matters (sand, silt and clay) and some biological contaminants in water and the settled particles can be removed.
Filtration is the process of removing dissolved organic matters.
Disinfection is an important process in the water treatment plant unit.It removes the pathogens or disease causing bacteria from the water
Plain chlorination is the process of treatment of water by only using screening and disinfection.In plane chlorination aeration,filtration and sedimentation is not using.
3.Water storage system
The water storage system is designed based on the design life.The design life is calculated based on the future population and development in the area.The main element that is used for designing is water demand
The total quantity of water required depends on
Per capital demand
Per capital demand is the water required by a single person in one day.It is expressed in litres per capital day or lpcd
The future population can be determined by several population forecasting method.
Distribution system involves the process of distribution of water to the industry,home or public places.The distribution system is designed based on the maximum hourly demand.