Types of Land Survey-Definition, Principle & Methods of Land Surveying

I know, you are searching in google for the various types of land survey methods. Yes, I am here to give you a brief and simple description for all your doubts in surveying.

Surveying is the technique of determining the relative position of different points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and finally representing them on a sheet of paper known as plan or map. Then they are prepared into any suitable scale.

What are the Principles of land survey methods

All land survey methods are done with the help of two basic principles given below

  1. Location of point by means of two-point reference
  2. Working from whole to part

Types of land survey methods(Difference between plain and Geodetic surveying)

The two types of land survey used now are plane surveying and geodetic surveying.The two types of land survey are described below.

Plane surveying

In plane surveying, the spherical shape of the earth is considered as a plane. In plane surveying, all triangles made by survey lines are plane triangles. All survey lines in plane land survey methods are assumed as straight lines and all plumb lines are assumed as parallel lines. Plane surveying is done of area less than250 km sq.

Geodetic surveying

The objective of geodetic surveying is to do surveying with more precise and accurate measurements than plane surveying. In geodetic surveying, the surface of the earth is taken as its actual shape not like plane surface as we had done in plane surveying.

In geodetic surveying, most of the measurements are taken as angular measurements. In geodetic surveying higher degree of accuracy in angular and plane surveying can be achieved by taking the surface of the earth as curvature. This is one the major difference between plane surveying and geodetic surveying.

Difference between plain and Geodetic surveying

Types of land survey methods based on the nature of field survey

1.Land Surveying

1.Topographic surveying

This survey is done by measuring the vertical and horizontal distance of the field. These measurements to determine the natural features of a country such as river, streams, lakes, woods etc,

2.City Surveying

  They are made for the construction of streets, water supply system, and sewers.

3.Cadastral Surveys

Cadastral survey is done for fixing the property line, land area calculation and survey during the transfer of property from one owner to another.

2.Marine or hydrographic survey

types of land survey methods

It deals with bodies of water for purpose of navigation, water supply, harbour works or for the determination of mean sea level.

3.Astronomical survey

1.Engineering survey

Engineering land survey is to do for the determination of sufficient data for the engineering works such as roads and reservoirs.

2.Military survey

This is used for determining points which have strategic importance

3.Mine survey

This is used for exploring mineral wealth

types of land survey methods

Types of land survey methods based on the instrument

  1. Chain survey
  2. Theodolite survey
  3. Traverse survey
  4. Triangulation survey
  5. Tacheometric survey
  6. Plane table survey
  7. Photogrammetric survey
  8. Aerial survey


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